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It’s important to dress in layers. You can always take layers off as you warm up. One should start with a thin, wicking layer—like silk, polyester or nylon, not cotton—next to the skin for both the upper and lower parts of the body. Cotton tends to absorb moisture, like sweat, which will end up making you cold. The goal in cold weather is to stay dry. This should be followed by a coat or jacket with a fleece, topped by a final waterproof layer. One should not forget snow pants of a similar material.

Feet should be covered with wool socks and water-resistant, insulated boots with good traction for icy streets. A hat, scarf and mittens are a must. Hats with ear flaps are best, and mittens might be warmer than gloves. For extra protection, disposable heat packs are available at a cost of $3.00 for two. They can go into boots, mittens and pockets and may last six to ten hours.

When shopping for winter outdoor jackets, coats, pants, boots and other clothing, make sure to check labels indicating the lowest temperature each product was made for. In -35 C weather, clothing suitable for use in -10 C weather is unlikely to be warm enough.