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The Canadian education system is regulated by the provincial and territorial governments through their ministries of education. These ministries oversee smaller bodies called boards of education or district school boards, which then manage individual schools in a particular region.

Additionally, Canadians have access to three different types of schools: public, private and Catholic. The largest school boards in cities with foreign missions are the Ottawa Carleton District School Board, Commission scolaire de Montréal, English Montreal School Board, Toronto District School Board, Calgary Board of Education, the Edmonton Public School Board and the Vancouver School Board.

The provincial education systems have a similar basic structure. Each has three levels: elementary, secondary and post-secondary. Elementary and secondary education is free and compulsory for all children. Education is available in both English and French, where numbers warrant, in most regions across the country, except Québec where French is the only official language. Here, residents must request special permission to have their children receive an education in English.

Most Canadian schools require a student to be comfortable using a computer and the Internet. Some schools may even require students to provide their own laptops to fully participate in classes.

The provincial ministries of education are as follows: